Do you know if those penalties were in place of a drive through penalty or if there’s a separate rule for speeding behind the safety car?
I believe it was an entirely separate rule. It may have also been a special circumstance, because half a dozen drivers were flagged for it. The stewards may have deferred judgement until after the race to look at why so many cars broke the rule. Realising that there was no way to have avoided breaking the rule simply because they were right on top of the pit lane at the time of the accident in question, the stewards chose a very light punishment to point out that the drivers had broken a rule, but also concede that it was a bad rule.
Nevertheless, it’s a completely different issue to the one that might be here. Assuming for the moment that Vettel did perform an illegal pass, it’s not handled the same way as cars speeding behind the safety car, and so the penalty would likely be different to the episode in Valencia even before the rules regarding delta times were adjusted.